Puppy Care

Recommended Care & Training Tips

Caring for your puppy

Congratulations on welcoming a new puppy into your family. Owning a dog can be an extremely rewarding experience, but it also comes with a lot of responsibility. Below you will find information about caring for your puppy.

If you have any questions please give us a call at  928.445.2190


The Puppy Plan

For the first few months in life, puppies are protected from disease by antibodies they received through their mother’s milk. Over time, this protection fades and they need vaccines in order to continue being protected from diseases such as parvovirus and distemper.

Vaccines stimulate the puppy’s own immune system to recognize and fend off certain diseases, but it takes multiple vaccines (boosters) to get them fully protected. Puppies need to have their vaccine repeated several times at regular intervals to make certain they build good immunity.

In general, most puppies start their vaccine series when they are 6-9 weeks old.

Overview of the vaccine series and puppy plan:
DAPP is a vaccine that protects against Distemper, Adenovirus, Parvovirus and Parainfluenza.
Bordetella is a vaccine that protects against kennel cough.

6-9 weeks: Exam and DAPP #1
9-12 weeks: Exam, DAPP #2 and Bordetella #1
12-16 weeks: Rabies, DAPP #3, Bordetella #2

Often puppies are not 6-9 weeks old at their first visit, or they may have received vaccines while they were with the breeder. If this is the case, your veterinarian will adjust the vaccine schedule to fit your puppy’s specific situation and explain any changes to you during your appointment. Depending on the breed, your veterinarian will also discuss if your pet is at a higher risk and should receive additional vaccines.

Puppies are not considered protected until they have finished their entire vaccine series.

Canine Licensing Requirements

How do I know if I live in city/county/town limits? Check with the Yavapai County Assessor’s Office or your City or Town Hall for the most accurate and up to date information. In most cases if you receive city trash or city/town water you are located within the city/town limits.


All dogs 4 months of age and older must be licensed with the City of Prescott within 60 days of being in the city. All City of Prescott dog licenses expire on December 31 each year. View the complete City of Prescott ordinance >>

Licensing Locations:
You may license your pet in person at Prescott City Hall at 201 S. Cortez Street in Prescott. Please bring your pet's rabies vaccination certificate and spay/neuter certificate (if applicable) with you.

You may license your pet in person at most participating veterinary hospitals

Required Paperwork:
-A current rabies vaccination certificate is required if the rabies vaccination on file has expired. Please check your certificate for correct address and pet information. Rabies vaccinations must be valid through October 1 in order for a license to be issued.
-Proof of spay/neuter, such as a signed statement from a veterinarian or an invoice for services is required if the pet has been altered since the last licensing period and you are applying for the lower spayed/neutered license fee.
-If requesting the discounted fee for a puppy that is 12 months of age or less, please include the pet's date of birth or age.

Your paperwork will not be returned to you, so please only send copies and retain the originals for your records.

All licenses expire December 31. Rabies vaccinations must be valid through October 1st for a license to be issued.

The cost for licensing unaltered or fertile pets is higher than for licensing spayed or neutered pets in order to promote sterilization and to reduce pet overpopulation.

Fees are as follows:
-$6.00 for altered animals and proof of altering must be provided at time of purchase as well as current rabies vaccination for calendar year
-$30.00 for un-altered animals and proof of rabies vaccination for calendar year
-$8.00 additional charge after March 31 of each calendar year


The Arizona State Statute 11-1008 Doc license requirements for the unincorporated areas of Yavapai County are: “Dogs 4 months of age and older must be vaccinated for the rabies virus by a DVM and wear a current Yavapai County dog License. (Dog licenses are available annually.)”

County dog licenses may be purchased at Humane Societies and Sheriff’s offices with documentation of current rabies vaccination and of spay or neuter status. Learn more on the Yavapai County Website >>

Fees are as follows:
-$5.00 for altered animals and proof of altering must be provided at time of purchase as well as current rabies vaccination for calendar year
-$25.00 for un-altered animals and proof of rabies vaccination for calendar year
-$5.00 additional charge after March 31 of each calendar year
-$5.00 replacement fee for loss of current dog license


Please see your town hall for tags and licensing requirements. You will receive a rabies certificate at the time of your dog’s vaccination to assist with obtaining the license.


Please see your town hall for tags and licensing requirements. You will receive a rabies certificate at the time of your dog’s vaccination to assist with obtaining the license.

Parasite Prevention

Do all puppies have worms?

Intestinal parasites are very common in puppies. Puppies can become infected with parasites before they are born or later through their mother's milk. The microscopic examination of a stool sample will usually help us to determine the presence of intestinal parasites. We recommend this exam for all puppies. Even if we do not get a stool sample, we recommend the use of a deworming product that is safe and effective against several of the common worms of the dog. We do this because our deworming medication has minimal side-effects and because your puppy does not pass worm eggs every day so the stool sample may not detect worms that are present. Additionally, some of these internal parasites can be transmitted to humans. Deworming is done now and repeated in about three weeks. It is important that it be repeated because the deworming medication only kills the adult worms. Within three to four weeks, the larval stages will become adults and need to be treated. Dogs remain susceptible to re-infection with hookworms and roundworms. Periodic deworming throughout the dog's life may be recommended for outdoor dogs. Heartgard preventative given once monthly prevents hookworms and roundworms.

Tapeworms are one of the most common intestinal parasite of dogs. Puppies become infected with them when they swallow fleas; the eggs of the tapeworm live inside the flea. When the dog chews or licks its skin as a flea bites, the flea may be swallowed. The flea is digested within the dog's intestine; the tapeworm hatches and then anchors itself to the intestinal lining. Therefore, exposure to fleas may result in a new infection. Tapeworm infections can occur in as little as two weeks.

Dogs infected with tapeworms will pass small segments of the worms in their stool. The segments are white in color and look like grains of rice. They are about 1/8 inch (3 mm) long and may be seen crawling on the surface of the stool. They may also stick to the hair under the tail. If that occurs, they will dry out, shrink to about half their size, and become golden in color.

Tapeworm segments do not pass every day or in every stool sample; therefore, inspection of several consecutive bowel movements may be needed to find them. We may examine a stool sample in our office and not find them, and then you may find them the next day. If you find them at any time, please notify us so we may provide the appropriate drug for treatment.

How important are heartworms?

Heartworms are important parasites, especially in certain climates. They live in the dog’s bloodstream and cause major damage to the heart and lungs. Heartworms are transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes. Fortunately, we have drugs that will protect your dog from heartworms. These drugs are very safe and effective if given regularly. We can help you choose the best product for your pet’s needs and lifestyle.

Heartworm preventatives are dosed according to your dog's weight. As the weight increases, the dosage should also increase. Please note the dosing instructions on the package.

Fecal Analysis Guidelines

It's very important to bring your pet's fecal sample (bowel movement) to Prescott Animal Hospital for analysis as an initial check for worms (at your puppy or kitten’s first or second visit). Prescott Animal Hospital encourages preventative medicine and offers the first fecal analysis at no charge.

How do I bring you a sample?

Collect fresh fecal sample within 12 hours of an examination. It is also very important to keep the samples cool or refrigerated. Place the sample in the container provided or a plastic bag or container will do.

What do you do with the sample?

A microscopic examination of the fecal sample will be performed to identify if your pet has worms or worm's eggs (ova sites and parasites) present. If your pet has diarrhea your veterinarian may choose to run additional tests.

What if my pet does have worms?

If your pet does have parasites treatment will begin once the specific parasites are identified. It's important to realize that different parasites will require different medications. Upon completion of treatment a recheck or follow-up fecal will be requested to verify treatment was successful.

Why does my pet need a fecal analysis every year?

An annual fecal check is recommended as good preventive medicine. Pets do not always show signs of internal parasites and can be asymptomatic (not showing signs). Some parasites can infect people most commonly children, elderly and those with weak immune systems.

Feeding Your Puppy

There are a lot of choices of dog food. Which one do I choose?

Diet is extremely important during the growing months of dog's life. We recommend a veterinary recommended name-brand food made by a national dog food company (not a generic or local brand name) and a diet made for puppies. This should be fed to your puppy from eight to eighteen months of age, depending on its breed and size. We recommend that you only buy food that has been certified by an independent organization as complete and balanced. In the United States, you should look for food that has been certified by AAFCO, an independent organization that oversees the entire pet food industry. It does not endorse any particular food, but it will certify that the food has met minimum requirements for nutrition.

Table foods are not recommended. Because they are generally very tasty, dogs will often begin to hold out for these and not eat their well-balanced dog food.

We enjoy a variety of things to eat in our diet. However, most dogs actually prefer not to change from one food to another unless they are trained to do so by the way you feed them. Do not feel guilty if your dog is happy eating the same food day after day, week after week.

Commercials for dog food can be very misleading. If you watch carefully you will notice that commercials often promote dog food on the basis of taste. Nutrition is rarely recommended. Most of the "gourmet" foods are marketed to appeal to owners who want the best for their dogs; however, they do not offer the dog any nutritional advantage over a good quality dry food, and they are far more expensive. If you read the labels of many of the gourmet foods, you will notice that they do not claim to be "complete and balanced". If your dog eats a gourmet food very long, it will probably not be happy with the other foods. If your dog needs a special diet due to health problems later in life, it is very unlikely to accept it.

How often should I feed my puppy?

There are several "right" ways to feed puppies. The most popular method is commonly called "meal feeding". This means that a puppy is fed at specific times of the day. A measured amount of food should be offered three times per day for five to twelve week old puppies. What is not eaten in 30 minutes is taken up. If the food is eaten within three to four minutes, the quantity is probably not sufficient. Puppies fed in this manor generally begin to cut back on one of those meals by three to four months of age and perhaps another one later. If a certain feeding is ignored for several days, it should be discontinued.

"Free choice feeding" means that food is available at all times. This works well with dry foods and for some dogs. However, most dogs tend to overeat and become obese.

Behavior & Discipline

What type of behavior should I expect from a healthy puppy?

It is very important that you provide stimulating play for your puppy, especially during the first few weeks in its new home. Stalking and punching are important play behaviors in puppies and are necessary for proper muscle development. Your puppy will be less likely to use family members for these activities if you provide adequate puppy-safe toys. The best toys are lightweight and movable. Any toy that is small enough to be swallowed should be avoided.

How do I discipline a puppy?

Disciplining a young puppy may be necessary if its behavior threatens people or property, but harsh punishment should be avoided. Hand clapping and using shaker cans or horns can be intimidating enough to inhibit undesirable behavior. However, remote punishment is preferred. Remote punishment consists of using something that appears unconnected to the punisher to stop the problem behavior. Examples include using spray bottles, throwing object in the direction of the puppy to startle (but not hit) it, and making loud noises. Remote punishment is preferred because the puppy associated punishment with the undesirable act and not with you.

How do I housebreak my new puppy?

Housebreaking should begin as soon as your puppy enters his new home. How long the training must continue depends on both the puppy and you. Some pups learn sooner than others. Your dog wants to please you. But a puppy's memory is short, so your patience is important. A home with a poorly trained puppy is not a happy home for you or the puppy.

The puppy's bed may be a box, open at one end and slightly larger than the puppy. If the bed is too large, the puppy may defecate or urinate in a corner rather than go outside. If the bed is smaller, the puppy will do its "business" outside rather than soil its bed.

Enclose the bed in a small area, such as a laundry room. Cover this area with newspapers to be used at night, or when your pup is left unsupervised.

A common housebreaking technique is creating a “scent post”. A scent post is created when your puppy has an "accident." The problem becomes one of locating the scent post in the place you want it.

To create a scent post, leave a smear of stool from the last "accident" or wet paper on the clean paper in the place you want it, and coax or scoot the puppy to that area. The same is true of an outside scent post, but without the paper, in an out-of-the-way place in the yard. This will solve the "mine-field" problem.

The first thing in the morning, the puppy should be scooted to the scent post. This is so he can learn his way to the door and the scent post. Let him sniff about. The moment he has relieved himself, pat him on the head and immediately bring him into the house. Do not let him play about. The toilet period and play period should be definitely separate in the puppy's routine.

The puppy should then be fed. In a short while the puppy will become uneasy and walk in circles sniffing at the floor. The puppy should then be scooted and coaxed to the scent post as quickly as possible.

This routine should be repeated every hour or two throughout the day, especially after meals and naps.

When the puppy is taken out to play, it is wise to leave the house by another door and avoid taking him near his scent post. Never play with your pup until after he has been taken out and has eliminated.

There will of course be some "accidents" in the house. Never let one of these slip by unnoticed; punishment five minutes after the offense is too late. Scold (not whip) the puppy and rush him to the scent post. Then scrub the area of mishap thoroughly until all odor is gone. Your veterinarian will recommend cleaning products that will help neutralize any scent from urination or defecation.

Positive reinforcement of proper urine and bowel habits is just as important as properly applied discipline. When your puppy urinates or defecates in the correct place, spend several minutes stroking and praising him.

How do I insure that my puppy is well socialized?

The socialization period for dogs is between four and sixteen weeks of age. During that time, the puppy is very impressionable to social influences. If it has good experiences with men, women, children, cats, other dogs, etc., it is likely to accept them throughout life. If the experiences are absent or unpleasant, it may become apprehensive or adverse to any of them. Therefore, during the period of socialization, we encourage you to expose your dog to as many types of social events and influences as possible.

My puppy seems to be constantly chewing. Why does this occur?

Chewing is a normal puppy behavior. Almost all of a puppy’s 28 baby teeth are present by about four weeks of age. They begin to fall out at four months of age and are replaced by the 42 adult (permanent) teeth by about six months of age. Therefore, chewing is a puppy characteristic that you can expect until about six to seven months of age. It is important that you do what you can to direct your puppy’s chewing toward acceptable objects. You should provide puppy-safe items such as soft chew toys so other objects are spared.

Crate Training — A Safe Haven For Your Dog

Why might my dog need to be confined?

Dogs are highly social animals that make wonderful pets. They can be effective as watchdogs, are excellent companions for play and exercise, and are sources of affection and comfort. However, with the lifestyle and schedule of the majority of families, dogs must learn to spend a portion of the day at home, while their human family is away at school, work, shopping or engaging in recreational activities. During those times when you are away and unavailable to supervise, the pet may still feel the need to chew, play, explore, eat, or eliminate. These behaviors can be very distressing and damaging to the home. Confining your dog to a play area with its toys is akin to putting a young child in its playpen; while teaching your dog to relax and sleep in its crate or bed would be similar to putting your baby in its crib when its time for bedtime or a nap.

How can this misbehavior be prevented?

Preventing inappropriate behaviors when you are absent involves both scheduling and prevention. Scheduling means insuring that the pet has had the opportunity to play, eat, and eliminate before you leave it in its confinement area or crate. By maintaining a regular daily routine and timing your departures (or other daily commitments) at a time when your dog would normally be napping or playing with its own toys, there should be minimal resistance to confinement. Prevention involves keeping the pet in a confined area where it is secure, safe, and can do no damage to itself or your possessions.

What are my options for confinement?

Depending on the structure of your home, it may be possible to confine your dog to a limited portion of your home, by closing a few doors, or putting up some child gates or barricades. The dog can then be allowed access to the remaining areas of the house. Another option is to use avoidance devices that keep the pet away from selected areas (see our handout on ‘Behavior management products’). If dog-proofing is not possible when you have to leave your dog unsupervised, you might need to confine your dog to a single room, pen, or crate. This smaller confinement area not only provides safety for the dog and protection of the home from damage, but also provides a means of teaching the dog what it is supposed to chew, and where it is supposed to eliminate i.e. setting up for success rather than attempting to punish what might be undesirable, but normal play, exploration, scavenging or elimination.

Isn’t crate training cruel?

Crate training is neither cruel nor unfair. On the contrary, leaving the dog unsupervised to wander, investigate, destroy, and perhaps injure itself is far more inhumane than confinement. Insure that the crate is large enough for your dog to stand, turn and play with its toys. Proper timing and scheduling can help your dog to adapt. Be certain that your dog has had sufficient play, exercise, attention, and an opportunity to eliminate before confinement, and that you return before the dog next needs to eliminate. Ideally the pet should be placed in its crate at times of the day when it is due for a nap, or when it normally amuses itself by playing with its own toys. Although confinement should be used when you cannot supervise your dog, when you are at home you must try to keep the pet with you (except during the pet’s nap times), as this is the only way to train and reinforce desirable behavior and direct the pet away from undesirable behavior. Be sure not to require your pet to be confined longer than wait to eliminate.

What are the benefits of crate training?

Confinement training has many benefits. It keeps your pet safe and prevents damage to household possessions. The crate also provides a place of security; a comfortable retreat where the dog can relax, sleep, or chew on a favorite toy. Confining the pet to a crate or room, when the owner is not available to supervise can immediately prevent behavior problems. If the puppy is crated when it is napping or playing with its own toys, the risk for over-attachment and separation anxiety might be reduced. While in the crate the puppy learns to spend time away from the owners napping or engaging in play behavior When you are at home, supervision and rewards can be used to prevent undesirable behavior, and to teach the dog where to eliminate, what to chew, and what rooms and areas are “out of bounds.”

Will cage confinement help with house-training?

Crate training is one of the quickest and most effective ways to house-train a dog. Since most dogs instinctively avoid eliminating in their sleeping and eating areas, dogs that use their crate as a bed or “den” will seldom eliminate inside unless they have been left in the crate for too long or they are excessively anxious when confined. Crate training can also help teach the dog to develop control over its elimination. As soon as your dog is released from its crate, take it to the designated area and reward elimination at acceptable locations. Since the crate prevents chewing, digging, and elimination on the owner’s home and property, owners of crate trained puppies have fewer behavior concerns, the puppy receives far less discipline and punishment, and the overall relationship between pet and owner can be dramatically improved.

Will the crate provoke barking?

The crate can also be a useful way to reduce or eliminate distress barking. Rather than locking the puppy up and away from the owners at nighttime or during mealtime, the puppy can be housed in its crate in the bedroom or kitchen. In this way the puppy cannot get into mischief, and is less likely to cry out or vocalize, with the owners in the room. Of course if the puppy is not napping and you are available to supervise your puppy should be out and about with you watching closely to insure that it comes to no harm and does not get into mischief. Distress vocalization is far more likely for owners that lock their puppy out of harms way in a laundry or basement with no access to them. When and if the owner then goes to the puppy to quiet it down or check it out, the crying behavior is rewarded.

Are there other benefits to caging?

Throughout its life, whether traveling or boarding, your dog may require crate confinement for varying periods of time. Dogs that are comfortable with crating are more likely to feel secure, and far less stressed, should caging be required. By bringing along the dog’s bedding or its own crate for boarding or veterinary visits, the pet may feel even more settled and relaxed.


What type of crate or confinement area works best?

A metal, collapsible crate with a tray floor works well, as long as the crate is large enough for the dog to stand, turn, and stretch out. Some dogs feel more secure if a blanket is draped over the crate. A plastic traveling crate or a homemade crate can also be used. Playpens or barricades may also be successful as long as they are indestructible and escape proof.

Where should the cage be located?

Because dogs are social animals, an ideal location for the crate is a room where the family spends time such as a kitchen, den, or in a bedroom where the dog might sleep at night.

How can crating or confinement become a positive experience?

Most dogs quickly choose a small area, such as a corner of a room, in a dog bed, or on or under a couch, where they go to relax. If your puppy has just recently been adopted from the breeder, kennel or pet store, crate training should be relatively easy, since your puppy is likely already accustomed to sleeping in a pen or crate. The key to making the crate the dog’s favorite retreat and sleeping area, is to associate the crate with as many positive and relaxing experiences and stimuli as possible (treats, chew toys, bedding) and to place the dog in its cage when playing with new toys, during scheduled rest and sleep periods or even as a feeding area. You must therefore plan and be aware of the dog’s schedule, including its needs for exploration, play, food, and elimination, so that the dog is only placed in its cage, when each of these needs is fulfilled. You must then return to the dog to release it from its cage before the next exercise, feeding or elimination period is due. A radio or television playing in the background may help to calm the dog when it is alone in its cage, especially during the daytime. These may also help to mask environmental noises that can stimulate the dog to vocalize. The crate should not be used for punishment.

How do I crate-train my new puppy?

Introduce the puppy to the crate as soon as it is brought home and as early in the day as possible. Place a variety of treats in the cage throughout the day so that the puppy is encouraged to enter voluntarily. Bedding, toys and water can also be offered to the puppy in the open cage. Food might also be placed in the pen or crate if you wish to also designate it as a feeding area.

Choose a location outdoors for the puppy to eliminate. Take the puppy to the location, wait until the puppy eliminates, and reward the puppy lavishly with praise or food. After some additional play and exercise, and when you feel its time for your puppy to take a nap (or when you see your puppy begin to settle down for nap), place the puppy in its crate with water, a toy and a treat and close the door.

If the puppy is tired and calm, it may take a “nap” shortly after being placed in its crate. If not, be certain to provide a few novel and stimulating toys or chews for play. In this way the crate serves one of two functions – as your puppy’s bed (crib) or your puppy’s play area (playpen).

Leave the room but remain close enough to hear the puppy. Escape behavior and vocalization are to be expected when a dog is first placed into its crate. If the “complaints” are short or mild, ignore your puppy until the crying stops. Never release the puppy unless it is quiet. This teaches that quiet behavior, and not crying will be rewarded. Release the puppy after a few minutes of quiet or a short nap.

A brief disruption may be useful to deter crying if it does not subside on its own. A shaker can (a sealed can filled with coins or marbles) can be tossed at the crate when the pup barks. Other methods include water sprayers or alarms (audible or ultrasonic). The owner should remain out of sight. By plugging in an alarm, tape recorder, or hair dryer beside the crate and turning it on with a remote control switch each time the dog barks, the dog can be taught that barking has unpleasant consequences whether the owner is present or not. When the barking ceases, the disruption is stopped. Bark collars and alarms that are activated by the barking are also available for persistent problems. These techniques must be used with caution, since it can exacerbate the vocalization problem of a very anxious pet.

Repeat the cage and release procedure a few more times during the day at each naptime and each time your puppy is given a toy or chew with which to play. Each time, increase the time that the dog must stay in the crate before letting it out. Always give the puppy exercise and a chance to eliminate before securing it in the crate.

At bedtime, the dog should be exercised, secured in its crate, and left for the night. Do not go to the dog if it cries. Remote punishment can be used to deter crying. The crate might remain in the same place as it has been during the day, or might be moved (or a second crate used) to the bedroom.

If the pup sleeps in one end of its crate and eliminates in the other, a divider can be installed to keep the puppy in a smaller area providing the puppy is not required to spend more time in the crate than it is capable of holding it’s urine or stool If the puppy must eliminate, it does not matter how small the area is; the puppy will have to eliminate.

Never leave the puppy in its crate for longer than it can control itself or it may be forced to eliminate in the crate.

If the pup must be left for long periods during which it might eliminate, it should be confined to a larger area such as a dog-proof room or pen, with paper left down for elimination. As the puppy gets older, its control increases and it can be left longer in its crate.

Although there is a great deal of individual variability, many puppies can control themselves through the night by 3 months of age. During the daytime, once the puppy has relieved itself, a 2-month old puppy may have up to 3 hours control, a 3-month puppy up to 4 hours, and a 4 month old puppy up to 5 hours.

A crate is not an excuse to ignore the dog!


What is the best technique for crate training older pets and adult dogs?

For adult dogs or older puppies that have not been crate trained previously, set up the crate in the dog's feeding area with the door open for a few days. Place food, treats, and water in the crate so that the dog enters the crate on its own. Another alternative is to place the crate (or a second crate) in the dog's sleeping area with its bedding. Once the dog is entering the crate freely, it is time to close the door for very short periods of time. Some dogs might do better if a pen, or confinement area with barricade (child gate).

Using the same training techniques as for ‘sit’ and ‘stay’ training, have the dog enter its crate for short periods of time to obtain food, treats, or chew toys. Once the pet expects treats each time it enters the crate, train the dog to enter the crate on command (e.g. kennel!), and have the dog remain in the kennel for progressively longer periods of time, before the dog is allowed to exit. Give small rewards each time the dog enters the cage at first, and give the dog a favored chew toy or some food to help make the stay more enjoyable. At first, the door can remain open during these training sessions.

When the dog is capable of staying comfortably and quietly in the crate begin to lock the dog in the crate at nighttime. Once the dog sleeps in the crate through the night, try leaving the pet in the crate during the daytime. Try short departures first, and gradually make them longer.

Is crate training practical for all dogs?

An occasional dog may not tolerate crate training, and may continue to show anxiety, or even eliminate when confined. These dogs may adapt better to other types of confinement such as a pen, dog run, small room, or barricaded area. Of course, if the dog is being left alone for longer than it can control (hold in) its elimination, it will be necessary to provide an area much larger than a cage, so that the pet has a location on which to eliminate, away from its food and bedding.

Continued anxiety, destruction or vocalization when placed in the crate may indicate separation anxiety. The intervention of a behaviorist may be needed.